Mandarin Chinese has 21 consonants and 16 vowels. They can be combined together to create more than 400 mono-syllabic sounds.[1] As a tonal language, Mandarin Chinese also have 4 main tones and a neutral tones that distinct different characters by using their tones. However, tones are usually ignored when composing lyrics.

Chinese VOCALOIDs Edit

Mandarin is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. However, when taken as a whole there are a estimated 1 billion speakers of the language; the most of any language in the world.


The phonology of Standard Chinese, the official language of China, is modeled on Beijing Mandarin.


Standard Chinese is also spoken in Taiwan. The phonology is slightly different; many Taiwanese usually pronounce retroflex (zh, ch, sh) consonants as alveolar consonants (z, c, s) due to influence from Hokkien. When they do (e.g. in formal situations), they pronounce retroflexes softer than in standard Mandarin.


Japanese-Mandarin accented VOCALOIDs are produced by those who came from Japan. Their voice providers have the Japanese language as their native language, but were used to produce Mandarin-Chinese voicebanks. Therefore the Japanese-Mandarin accent is a non-native Mandarin accent, showing significant and notorious differences in comparison to the native Mandarin accents.

Phonetic chartEdit

Symbol Classification IPA Symbol / Name Pinyin Notes
a Final ä ba
o Final ɔ / u̯ɔ po
7 Final ɤ~ɯ̯ɤ ke
i Final i ji, yi
u Final u fu, wu
y Final y ju, qu, xu, nü, lü, yu
@` Final ɑɻ~ɚ er
i\ Final ɨ zi, ci, si
i` Final ɨ˞ zhi, chi, shi, ri
aI Final aɪ̯ sai
ei Final eɪ̯ fei
AU Final ɑʊ̯ hao
@U Final ɤʊ̯ hou
ia Final i̯ä xia, ya
iE_r Final i̯e̞ jie, ye
ua Final u̯ä kua, wa
uo Final u̯ɔ huo , wo
yE_r Final y̯e̞ jue, que, xue, nüe, lüe, yue
iAU Final i̯ɑʊ̯ xiao, yao
i@U Final i̯ɤʊ̯~i̯oʊ̯ jiu, you
uaI Final u̯aɪ̯ kuai, wai
uei Final u̯eɪ̯ gui, wei
a_n Final an fan
@_n Final ən fen
i_n Final in xin, yin
iE_n Final i̯ɛn qian, yan
ua_n Final u̯an duan, wan
u@_n Final u̯ən dun, wen
y_n Final yn xun, yun
y{_n Final y̯ɛn~yan xuan, yuan
AN Final ɑŋ pang
@N Final əŋ~ɤŋ beng
iN Final xing, ying
iAN Final i̯ɑŋ xiang, yang
uAN Final u̯ɑŋ chuang, wang
u@N Final u̯əŋ~uɤŋ weng
UN Final ʊŋ dong
iUN Final i̯ʊŋ xiong, yong
p Initial p bo
p_h Initial po
m Initial m mo
f Initial f fo
t Initial t de
t_h Initial te
n Initial n ne
l Initial l le
k Initial k ge
k_h Initial ke
x Initial x~ he
ts\ Initial t͡ɕ ji
ts\_h Initial t͡ɕʰ qi
s\ Initial ɕ xi
ts` Initial ʈ͡ʂ zhi
ts`_h Initial ʈ͡ʂʰ chi
s` Initial ʂ shi
z` Initial ɻ~ʐ ri
ts Initial t͡s zi
ts_h Initial t͡sʰ ci
s Initial s si


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Start a Discussion Discussions about Chinese Phonetics

  • Help with making a Chinese Vocaloid sing English ( Engrish)

    12 messages
    • Angel Emfrbl wrote: EarthlingnAkumi wrote: Yeah rip it would be cool if Una had an english voicebank but oh well, there are plenty of ot...
    • Geomonlover wrote: Angel Emfrbl wrote: EarthlingnAkumi wrote: Yeah rip it would be cool if Una had an english voicebank but oh well, there ...