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Chinese Phonetics

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AboutEdit

Mandarin Chinese has 21 consonants and 16 vowels. They can be combined together to create more than 400 mono-syllabic sounds.[1] As a Tonal language, Mandarin Chinese also have 4 main tones and a neutral tones that distinct different characters by using their tones. However, note that these tones are usually not expressed while singing.

Chinese VOCALOIDs Edit

Mandarin is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Mandarin itself is divided by location with a number of dialects found within the language itself. However, when taken as a whole there are a estimated 1 billion speakers of the language; the most of any language in the world.

ChinaEdit

China is the origin of Mandarin Chinese. Within China itself, Mandarin is divided between 8 subgroups. Due to the variation caused by the large number of speakers, individuals from one subgroup do not always understand individuals from the other 7 subgroups.

TaiwanEdit

Mandarin is also spoken in Taiwan. There are slight variations in dialect with a number of words having a slight variant in their meanings compared to Mainland Mandarin. The main variation with the language is that many Taiwanese do not follow the usual 'retroflex articulation' pronunciation, as is the case with Mandarin speakers in Southern China. When they do (e.g. in formal situations), they pronounce retroflexes softer than in standard Mandarin.

Phonetic chartEdit

Symbol Classification IPA Symbol / Name Pinyin Notes
a Final ä ba
o Final ɔ / u̯ɔ po
7 Final ɤ~ɯ̯ɤ ke
i Final i ji, yi
u Final u fu, wu
y Final y ju, qu, xu, nü, lü, yu
@` Final ɑɻ~ɚ er
i\ Final ɨ zi, ci, si
i` Final ɨ˞ zhi, chi, shi, ri
aI Final aɪ̯ sai
ei Final eɪ̯ fei
AU Final ɑʊ̯ hao
@U Final ɤʊ̯ hou
ia Final i̯ä xia, ya
iE_r Final i̯e̞ jie, ye
ua Final u̯ä kua, wa
uo Final u̯ɔ huo , wo
yE_r Final y̯e̞ jue, que, xue, nüe, lüe, yue
iAU Final i̯ɑʊ̯ xiao, yao
i@U Final i̯ɤʊ̯~i̯oʊ̯ jiu, you
uaI Final u̯aɪ̯ kuai, wai
uei Final u̯eɪ̯ gui, wei
a_n Final an fan
@_n Final ən fen
i_n Final in xin, yin
iE_n Final i̯ɛn qian, yan
ua_n Final u̯an duan, wan
u@_n Final u̯ən dun, wen
y_n Final yn xun, yun
y{_n Final y̯ɛn~yan xuan, yuan
AN Final ɑŋ pang
@N Final əŋ~ɤŋ beng
iN Final xing, ying
iAN Final i̯ɑŋ xiang, yang
uAN Final u̯ɑŋ chuang, wang
u@N Final u̯əŋ~uɤŋ weng
UN Final ʊŋ dong
iUN Final i̯ʊŋ xiong, yong
p Initial p bo
p_h Initial po
m Initial m mo
f Initial f fo
t Initial t de
t_h Initial te
n Initial n ne
l Initial l le
k Initial k ge
k_h Initial ke
x Initial x~ he
ts\ Initial t͡ɕ ji
ts\_h Initial t͡ɕʰ qi
s\ Initial ɕ xi
ts` Initial ʈ͡ʂ zhi
ts`_h Initial ʈ͡ʂʰ chi
s` Initial ʂ shi
z` Initial ɻ~ʐ ri
ts Initial t͡s zi
ts_h Initial t͡sʰ ci
s Initial s si

ReferencesEdit

  1. link

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