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SBS Artech's ClaimEdit

According to SBS Artech at the Vocaloid 3 introduction, SeeU's Korean voicebank could recreate English. However, this has proven to be just a quasi equivalent of English, just as how Sonika can recreate 90% of the Chinese language using an English voicebank. Without subtitles, some English speakers were strained to understand SeeU's "English" in her first demo song "Run!". Overall, this claim has proven to be plausable to a varying degree and the Korean engine is able to create enough "English" to be understandable and is able to more closely recreate English then Japanese. However, despite being relatively clear, the engine naturally does not produce smooth singing results without some attention and users need to take note of how Korean Vocaloids work to fix this issue.

Language DifferencesEdit

English to KoreanEdit

TechniquesEdit

PalatalizationEdit

Due the Korean post-alveolar phonemes are more palatalized than their respective English semi-equivalents, it may be required add a [i:] or its respective glide counterpart [j] for achieve a closer pronunciation. The idea is adjust the note lenght, and the VEL (Velocity) to make the eeh-sound barely audible.

Alternatively, if the user is working on Vocaloid3, it can use a devoiced vowel like [i:_0] or [I_0] to achieve the same effect.

This technique also can be used for the [h] to achieve the palatal fricative, the allophone of the Korean [h] when is followed by a close front vowel like [i].

FlapEdit

On intervowel context the phoneme usually is a alveolar flap, which is the similar to the flapped T/D found in the American English. It's possible achieve a similar sound combining a [r] with a D phoneme like [d], [dh] or [D]. Usually [dh] work at best, [d] usually overpowers the [r] making noticeable the D sound, while [D] usually is too weak. However as the results varies per voicebank used, the range and nearby phonemes, the best is test which combination works better.

Conversion ListEdit

Korean Sample in Hangul\Revised Romanization

Korean Symbol IPA for Korean Symbol Equivalent / Quasiequivalent English Symbol IPA for English Symbol
ㅏ (a) [a] [ɐ] near-open central vowel

[V]

[{]

[ʌ]

[æ]

ㅑ (ya) [ia] [jɐ]

[j V]

[j {]

[jʌ]

[jæ]

ㅓ (eo) [7] [ɤ] close-mid back unrounded vowel

[V]

[O:]

[ʌ]

[ɔ:]

ㅕ (yeo) [i7] [jɤ]

[j V]


[j O:]

[jʌ]

[jɔ]

ㅐ (ae) ㅔ (e) [e] [e] mid front unrounded vowel [e] ɛ
ㅒ (yae) ㅖ (ye) [ie] [je] [j e] [je]
ㅗ (o) [o] [o] mid back rounded vowel

[O:]

[u:]

[ɔ:]

[u:]

ㅘ (wa) [oa] [wɐ]

[w V]

[w {]

[wʌ]

[wæ]

ㅙ (wae) [oe] [we] [w e] [we]
ㅚ (oe) [oi] [we] [w e] [w e]
ㅛ (yo) [io] [jo]

[j O:]

[j u:]

[jɔ:]

[ju:]

ㅜ (u) [u] [u] close back rounded vowel [u:] [u:]
ㅝ (weo) [u7] [wɤ]

[wV]

[wO:]

[wʌ]

[wɔ:]

ㅞ (we) [ue] [we] [w e] [we]
ㅟ (wi) [ui] [wi] [w i:] [wi]
ㅠ (yu) [iu] [ju] [j u:] [ju:]
ㅡ (eu) [M] [ɯ] [U] [ʊ]
ㅢ (eui) [Mi] [ɰi] [U i:] [ʊi:]
l (i) [i] [i] [i:] [i:]
ㄱ (g) [g] [g] voiced velar plosive

[g]

[gh]

[g]

[gʰ]

ㄲ (gg) [g'] [k] unvoiced velar plosive [k] [k]
ㄴ (n) [n] [n] alveolar nasal [n] [n]
ㄷ (d) [d] [d] voiced alveolar plosive

[d]

[dh]

[d]

[dʰ]

ㄸ (dd) [d'] [t] unvoiced alveolar plosive [t] [t]
ㄹ (r) [r]

[ɺ] lateral alveolar flap

[ɾ] alveolar flap

[ɽ] retroflex flap

[l0]

[r]

[r dh]

[l]

[ɹ]

[ɹd]

[d]

ㄹ (l) [l] [ɭ] [l0] [l]
ㅁ (m) [m] [m] [m] [m]
ㅂ (b) [b] [b]

[b]

[bh]

[b]

[bʰ]

ㅃ (bb) [b'] [p] [p] [p]
ㅅ (s) [s] [s] [s] [s]
ㅅ (s) [sh] [ɕ]

[S j] or [S i:]

[ʃj] or [ʃi:]

ㅆ (ss) [s'] [s:] [s] [s]
ㅆ (ss) [sh'] [ɕ:]

[S j] or [S i:]

[ʃj] or [ʃi:]

ㅈ (j) [c]

[dʑ]

[dz]

[dZ j] or [dZ i:]

[d z]

[dʒj] or [dʒji:]

[dz]

ㅉ (jj) [c']

[tɕ]

[ts]

[tS j] or [tS i:]

[t s]

[tʃj] or [tʃi:]

[ts]

ㅊ (ch) [ch]

[tɕʰ]

[tsʰ]

[tS j] or [tS i:


[t s]

[tʃj] or [tʃi:]

[t s]

ㅋ (k) [k] [kʰ] [kh] [kʰ]
ㅌ (t) [t] [tʰ] [th] [tʰ]
ㅍ (p) [p] [pʰ] [ph] [pʰ]
ㅎ (h) [h]

[h] or [ɦ]

[ç]

[ɸ]

[x]

[h]

[h j] or [h i:]

[f h] or [f ph]

[kh]

[h] or [ɦ]

[hj] or [hi:]

[fh]

[kʰ]

ㄱㄲㅋ (k) [gp] [k̚] [k] [k]
ㄴ (n) [np] [n] [n] [n]
ㄷㅅㅆㅈㅊㅌ (t) [dp] [t̚] [t] [t]
ㄹ(l) [rp] [ɭ]

[l0]

[@r]

[l]

[ɚ]

ㅁ (m) [mp] [m] [m] [m]
ㅂㅍ (p) [bp] [p̚] [p] [p]
ㅇ (ng) [Np] [ŋ] [N] [ŋ]

Korean to EnglishEdit

TechniquesEdit

Consonant ClustersEdit

Realization of DiphonesEdit

A great percent of diphone vowels in English end with either [I] or [U] while these sound does not exist in Korean their equivalents are [i] or [e] and [u] or [o]. These sounds are pronounced more closed in Korean than they are in English, thus for that reason many listeners might find that pronunciation of the word "I" [aI] sounds awkward when inputted as [a i], due to the [i] phoneme being pronounced further back than the [I] phoneme actually is in English. For more casual, less stressed sounding pronunciation on diphones users might find that using [e] for [I] and [o] for [U] is more effective.

Conversion ListEdit

English Sample (Received Pronunciation) English Symbol IPA for English Symbol Equivalent / Quasiequivalent Korean Symbol IPA for Korean Symbol Notes
aware, synthesis, harmony, the @ ə schwa

[7]1

[M]2

ɤ

ɯ

strut, unclean, cut,
duck
V ʌ open-mid back unrounded vowel

[7]

ɤ

them, egg e e close-mid front unrounded vowel [e]
kit, it, synthesis I ɪ near-close near-front unrounded vowel

[e]

[i]

i

beef, eat, harmony i: close front unrounded vowel [i] pronounced more in the front in Korean
trap, axe { æ near-open front unrounded vowel

[e]

e
taught, ought, ball O: ɔː open-mid back rounded vowel [7] ɤ
lot, off Q ɒ open back rounded vowel

[7]

[a]

ɤ

a

put, look U ʊ near-close near-back rounded vowel

[M]

[o]

ɯ

o

boot, view u: close back rounded vowel [u]
urge, bird, marker @r ɚ r-colored schwa

[7][@r] (brief [7])3

ɤɚ
pay, age, date eI

[e i]

[e]

ei

e

buy, eye, died aI

[a i]

[a e]

ai

ae

boy, oil, choice OI ɔɪ

[7 i]

[7 e]

[o i]

[o e]

ɤi

ɤe

oi

oe

oat, soak, show @U əʊ

[7 u]

[7 o]

ɤu

ɤo

loud, out, cow aU

[a u]

[a o]

au

ao

beer, ear I@ ɪə

[i @r]

bear, air, aware e@ ɛə [e @r]
poor, surely U@ ʊə

[u @r]

pour, sort, pour O@ ɔə

[7 @r]

[o @r]

ɤɚ

star, are, harmony Q@ ɒə

[a @r]

way

w w labio-velar approximant4

[oa]

[u7]

[ue]

[ui]

wa

we

wi

yellow j j palatal approximant

[ja]

[j7]

[je]

[jo]

[ju]

ja

je

jo

ju

cab b b voiced bilabial plosive

[b] (intervocalic)

[bp] (terminal)

b

big bh [b] b
bad d d voiced alveolar plosive

[d] (intervocalic)

[dp] (terminal)

d

dog dh [d] d
bag g g voiced velar plosive

[g] (intervocalic)

[gp] (terminal)

g

god gh [g] g
jeans dZ ʤ voiced postalveolar affricate [c] ʥ
vote v v voiced labiodental fricative

[v]

v
their D ð voiced dental fricative

[z]

[d]

z

d

resort z z voiced alveolar fricative

[z]

z

Asia Z ʒ voiced postalveolar fricative

[c]

[sh]

ʥ

ɕ

mind m m bilabial nasal

[m] (initial)

[mp] (terminal)

m
night n n alveolar nasal

[n] (initial)

[np] (terminal)

n
long N ŋ velar nasal [Np] (terminal) ŋ
red r ɹ alveolar approximant5

[r oa]

[r u7]

[r ue]

[r ui]

ɽwa

ɽwɤ

ɽwe

ɽwi

feel l ɫ velarized alveolar lateral approximant

[7]

ɤ
list l0 l alveolar lateral approximant [l]

l

dip p p voiced bilabial plosive

[b'] (intervocalic)

[bp] (terminal)

p

peace ph [p]

sit t t voiceless alveolar plosive

[d'] (intervocalic)

[dp] (terminal)

t

top th [t]
rock k k voiceless velar plosive

[g'] (intervocalic)

[gp] (terminal)

k

kiss kh [k]
touch tS ʧ voiceless postalveolar affricate

[ch]

[c']

tɕʰ

ʨ

feel f f voiceless labiodental fricative

[f]

f
think T θ voiceless dental fricative

[s']

[s]

s:

s

sea s s voiceless alveolar fricative

[s]

[C] (before i)

[s']

s

s:

share S ʃ voiceless postalveolar fricative

[sh]

[sh']

ɕ

ɕ:

hat h h voiceless glottal fricative [h] h

NotesEdit

1^ [7] for more open central vowels (reduced [V] [{] [O:] and [Q]).
2^ [M] for more back central vowels (reduced [i:] [I] [u:] [U] [e] [eI] and [aI])
3^ The short [7] vowel is required because the [@r] phoneme does not work when directly following a consonant in SeeU's voicebank.
4^ The idea is utilize the diphone more similar to the intended labiovelar approximant-vowel combination
5^ The idea is combine the Korean R (retroflex~alveolar flap) with a [w]-like sound for achieve a closer pronunciation to the English R (generally a labialized alveolar approximant).
Similar to the case of the labiovelar approximant or [w], the user must chose the most fitting diphone. Example: "red" would be inputted as [r ue dp]


TutorialsEdit

ExamplesEdit

English to KoreanEdit

Korean to English Edit

CalaliniEdit

default.jpg

Cover work by AmikuGusta
Originally sung by Kaai Yuuki, Cover by SeeU

ReflectionEdit

default.jpg

Cover work by vocaloidfan301
Originally sung by Christina Aguilera, Cover by SeeU

TriviaEdit

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

Please note we are waiting for more information on some languages

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