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English Phonetics

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Englishphonetics

English Phonetics in use on the VOCALOID piano roll system

English VOCALOIDs are VOCALOIDs that are capable of mimicking the English language much easier than VOCALOIDs of other languages. The following is a list of phonemes needed to make an English VOCALOID sing in English.

AboutEdit

The English language has one of the greatest variations of dialect in the world. Thus, there is much more variety of pronunciation for English VOCALOIDs than VOCALOID such as those that sing in other languages.

The English language itself is made up of about 20 vowel sounds and 24 consonant sounds. Also, English doesn't have a systematic orthography, so there is not a one-to-one or near one-to-one match between letters and sounds as it happens with other languages like the Spanish or Japanese,

Example. "W" can sound /w/ in "what" and /u:/ in "few", "Y" can sound /j/ in "yes" and /i/ in "play".[1] There are also differences between spellings of words, such as those seen in British and American spellings of words such as "colour/color".

VOCALOID and VOCALOID2, uses American spelling for the lyrics. VOCALOID3 is confirmed to be capable of localisation, but it is unknown if it will open up the ability to have American and British spelling.

However the phonetic notation doesn't follow this, and instead uses the Received Pronunciation written in X-SAMPA, with some minor modifications when it's required, like its the case of the allophones.

During the VOCALOID2 era it was also confirmed that, in contrast to Japanese voicebanks, English voicebanks needed their samples cut at a length of more then 0.5 seconds on many sounds. This was a longer sample length then their Japanese cousins were being cut at for the software. If not done so, their vocals had a habit of cutting out when used for short notes.[2]

English VOCALOIDsEdit

Despite the general belief that singers lose their accents when they sing, this is not the case and an accent is possible to be heard even in singing vocals. However, the reason many are led to believe this is that there are several methods of training singers to disguise or otherwise hide their natural accents. Though the English language is not alone in the problems of accent as other languages may suffer from this same problem, English VOCALOIDs have proven to be difficult to avoid issues with accents. Even the first two VOCALOIDs in English, LEON and Lola, were noted their distinctly "British" accent. The result is that the accent has been known to aid or add difficulty to the use of synthesizing software and VOCALOID is no stranger to this effect. English VOCALOIDs have ended up with the most variation on how they sound out of all the current languages offered for the VOCALOID software so far produced.

The impact of the dialect/accent on English VOCALOIDs can result in a notorious variation of certain sounds, being notorious in the case of the diphthongs and rhotic vowels. Users who are not aware of the potential difficulty of accents may overlook odd pronunciations that need to be adjusted for better results. This is true for non-native based accents voicebanks more so, due the voice provider may have pronunciation issues with a non-native language.

In some instances, Producers may be found to have adjusted VSQ and VSQX files so heavily to make them work for 1 particular English VOCALOID that they become "VOCALOID specific" and are unable to work particularly well without further adjustments on other English VOCALOIDs. Cases like this are often rare in languages such as Japanese, though not foreign to them and many VSQ and VSQX files will work without too much adjusting.

Native AccentedEdit

British-English AccentedEdit

British-English accented VOCALOIDs were VOCALOIDs whose provider was known to have been of "British" nationality. As Great Britain is the main origin of English, British-English VOCALOIDs sing in a native English accent. Originally, they were the standard English accent type used to develop the English engine. British accented VOCALOIDs mostly came originally from Zero-G who worked solely with British artists to collect their vocal samples from.

Note: The term 'British' applies to anyone from England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and therefore the variation of the accent can differ greatly overall. The British Isles have the greatest variation of accents for English in the world per sq. mile of land. (For more information see Wikipedia.)

  • AVANNA
  • LEON
  • LOLA - (note; though she is regarded as having a "British" accent, Lola's accent reverts to her provider's natural Caribbean accent when not singing in ideal Soul music conditions)
  • OLIVER
  • SONiKA

American-English AccentedEdit

American accented VOCALOIDs have providers that came from the United States of America, and for this they are native speakers of the English language. Due to the fact there is only one American-English accented VOCALOID, practically there isn't any other voicebank to compare against it. The most notorious difference with the British accented voicebanks is in the rhotic vowels[3]. This is because the British dialects usually are non-rhotic; in North America rhotic dialects of the English are predominant.[4] (For more information see Wikipedia.)

Due to the user base preference for this accent, PowerFX have confirmed since that YOHIOloid's vocal was made to have a American sounding ring to it. Hatsune Miku English also was made to match the American way of speaking by Crypton Future Media.

Australian AccentedEdit

Australian Accents are the normal English accent for individuals from Australia. This particular accent is normally very distinct compared to all other English accents, with features unique from all other English dialects. (For more information see Wikipedia.)

  • Sweet ANN - her provider "Jody" supposedly came from Australia.

South-African AccentedEdit

South African accents are accents belonging to individuals from South Africa. English was not a native language to Africa and was introduced during the colonisation of African countries by English colonist, resulting in the English language becoming widely used in South Africa itself as the general Lingua franca between regions. Variation in impact of native languages on the English language results in a large variation of strength and tone of the accent, though in general most South African accents resemble closely to South England accents in nature. (For more information see Wikipedia.)

Non-native AccentedEdit

Japanese-English AccentedEdit

Japanese-English accented VOCALOIDs are produced by those who came from Japan. Their voice providers have the Japanese language as their native language, but were used to produce English voicebanks. Therefore the Japanese-English accent is a non-native English accent, showing significant and notorious differences in comparison to the native English accents. As more releases of such voicebanks have been produced by studios, common traits that are clearly able to be picked out amongst these vocals.

The major issue seen with Japanese accents is that they often struggle with distinction of some sounds. This usually happens because the providers and producing studios/companies aren't familiarized with these foreign sounds. Among the most common issues are:

  • Lack of distinction and stress in vowel sounds. These ones usually are either too tense or too lax, as the speaker tends to approximate the vowel sound to their 5-vowel system.
  • Lack of distinction in the liquids consonants (R & L). Luka's use of English to pronounce the words "Road Roller", which risks coming out as sounding like "roe rorora", is the most famous case.
  • Distortion of some sounds toward similar Japanese sounds. As example, the [f] phoneme pronounced as a bilabial fricative instead a labiodental fricative, as it should be.

These traits depends of the providers efficiency in English and the experience of the studio/company with the language. Despite this, Japanese-accented English VOCALOIDs still are a better option for mimicking the English language than use purely Japanese voicebank, having the wide array of phonemes and work-arounds available from the English phonetic system.

Korean-English accentedEdit

Korean-English accented VOCALOIDs are produced by those who come from South Korea. As there is only one unreleased VOCALOID voicebank with this accent, details cannot be released.

SeeU's Korean voicebank is an special case as it was given English phonemes to mimic the language to certain degree. However, this feature was left largely incomplete due deadline issues and again this does not produce quality results enough to comment on.

  • SeeU - A English Voicebank was set for production but is currently on hiatus as of Feb 2013.

Misc.Edit

  • Prima - Accent unconfirmed
  • Tonio - Accent unconfirmed

Phonetic System's CharacteristicsEdit

There are 52 phonetic pronunciations which make up the English VOCALOID library, these phonetic inputs will use any set of the estimated 2500 diphonetic samples, (VOCALOID uses a total of approx 8,500 samples altogether for English) needed for English recreation altogether. According to development notes on English GUMI, there were over 4,000 phonetic connections for that particular vocal alone[5]; a similar number is therefore likely for all English VOCALOIDs.

VowelsEdit

The English phonetic system includes 3 types of vowels: monothongs, diphthongs and R-colored vowels. Being the nucleus of the syllable, the vowels can be encoded alone

The English phonetic system includes 10 vowels of the 11 monophthongs or pure vowels of the English Language, missing the phoneme /ɑː/ or open unrounded vowel.


The pronunciation of some vowels may change slightly, depending the dialect or the way how was recorded the Vocaloid.

  • Example: Oliver's [{] phoneme has been reported to sound more like an /a/ than an /æ/.

Also the target or optimal musical genre of the Vocaloid can affect the pronunciation of the vowels:

  • Example: Tonio & Prima had been reported to have a "opera" like pronunciation of the vowels, more fitting for romance languages than standard English. This probably is attributed as they're Opera specialized voicebanks.

The English phonetic also includes an array of 5 diphthongs or gliding vowels : 3 y-colored diphthongs and 2 w-colored diphthong. The diphthongs behave as a single vowel, despite the glide at the end of them.


It's important consider the diphthongs, like the monothongs and the rhotic vowels, can vary their pronunciation, depending the dialect, recording and stress of the word.

  • Example: The diphthong [eI] can be pronounced with different degrees of stress, being realized either as [eː] (unstressed monothong), [eɪ] (diphthongized [e], lax glide), [ei] (diphthongized [e], tense glide) or [ej] (diphthongized [e], short tense glide). Big Al is know to vary noticeably the pronunciation of this phoneme accord the context.[6]

The English phonetic also includes including 6 r-colored or rhotized vowels. These ones are used mainly used for the vowel + R combinations. These vowels are modified by the R that follows them, incorporating to them and forming a single unit, as it's in the case of the diphthongs.


Like the diphthongs, these ones tends to vary in their pronunciation, specially if the voice provider has a rhotic accent or not.

  • Example: The phoneme [I@] may be realized as [ɪː] (non-rhotic, long vowel), [ɪə] (non-rhotic, schwa diphthong), [ɪɚ] (rhotic; r-colored schwa diphthong), [ɪɹ] (rhotic; vowel-consonant), etc.

The diphthongs and rhotic vowels tends to cause some problems for the user when they need to be extended across 2 or more notes if this one attempts to do it manually. [7]

For work around this, the English voicebanks allows split the words in syllables across the notes using the hyphen symbol "-" within the lyrics.

  • Example:
    Remember split


while in the case of extend a syllable across various notes is required a combination of hyphen '-' and slash '/' within the lyrics for state how many note will it last.

  • Example:
    Sound extend V2


In VOCALOID2's case, is obligatory use the hyphen/slash for effectively divide the words across the notes, unless the user prefer take the risk, working around this manually using phoneme replacement.

In the case of VOCALOID3, the task is easier as the [-] phoneme allows extend any kind of vowel it follows. The hyphen/slash still works, however this one simply adds the [-] phoneme when is required.

  • Example:
    Sound extend V3


ConsonantsEdit

The Phonetic System also includes 31 consonants phonemes. From the English consonants only the plosives and the liquids have their allophones as their own phonemes, these ones are required for achieve a correct stress and pronunciation of the words.

AllophonesEdit

Plosives and aspirated allophonesEdit

Because it's a important element of the consonant stress within the language, the English phonetic system makes distinctions between with normal plosives and their aspirated allophones.

The aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies at the release of of some obstruents.

In the English language, the plosives [b], [d], [g], [p], [t], [k] became aspirated at the beginning of the words or at the beginning of a stressed syllable

  • Example: The word 'potato' is aspirated in two consonants:The initial P, because it's the beginning of the word; and the middle T, because it's a stressed consonant.

In 'International Phonetic Alphabet' the aspirated phonemes are indicated by a small superscript ‹h›, as with /kʰ/ for a aspirated /k/, while in VOCALOID's English phonetic system the aspirated phonemes are distinguished from their standard versions due to the addition of a h which represents the IPA's small superscript ‹ʰ›.

The English Phonetic system includes an array of 3 to 4 liquid consonants. These ones includes to both English's allophones of the L. The English R usually is used at the beginning of the syllables, as the 'R's after a vowel, are included in the R-colored vowels.

Additionally, it can include the non-native English phoneme, the Rolling R. This one is mainly used for loan words, for sing in other languages or for some particular genres as the case of the opera.

Dark L and Clear LEdit

The system includes both allophones for the L in the English, the [l0] or alveolar lateral approximant, also known as Clear L (used at the beginning of the syllables); and the [l] phoneme or velarized alveolar lateral approximant, also known as Dark L (which it's used at the end of the syllables).

These phonemes aren't designed to be encoded alone; however, the [l0] seems to handle better to be reproduced without a vowel in comparison to the [l] phoneme. The former results in audio loop, while the latter generates electronic buzzing or doesn't produce sound at all without a vowel.

The only exception to this is Luka, which her [l] phoneme behaves as a syllabic consonant, so it can be used alone and extended without suffer distortion.[8]

Rolling REdit

Although it is not a phoneme of the English language, the alveolar trill or rolling R was included to the English phonetic system to increase the Opera singing capabilities of Prima. After this, it became a common phoneme in the Vocaloid2's English voicebanks released after Prima (with exception of Luka).[9] However, its addition to the Vocaloid3's English voicebanks seems to be less common.

Nonetheless, the performance of this phoneme may vary between different English Vocaloids. For example, it is known that Big Al is capable of using it only at the end of words and requires some techniques and further edition to use it in the beginning or middle of a word.

The symbol which represents it in the English Phonetic System is the phoneme [R].

Phonetic ListEdit

Special note: This was the list is based in the Big Al's help file, complimented with the chart of VOCALOID-User.Net[10] and expanded to include the IPA's symbols and names. However there were some incorrect entries within the released list. Entering some of the words provided here as examples for the phoneme usage will not result in the expected phonemes that were used for the list. In addition, the list did not indicate which particular letters the phoneme applied to; this section has underlined the relevant letters for the benefit of readers.

Symbol Classification IPA's Symbol / Name Sample Notes Related Phonemes
[@] vowel ə schwa aware, synthesis, harmony, the In the VOCALOID program, it is not actually used by itself but rather with other phonetics. However, Luka can use this phoneme to make a the "a" sound in aline

[V] (stressed)

[@r] (r-colored)

[Q@]

[V] vowel ʌ open-mid back unrounded vowel strut, unclean, cut,
duck
Actually it's an /ɐ/ in various most of the dialects. Despite this, the notation /ʌ/ still is used for tradition and because some dialects still retains the old pronunciation.

[@] (unstressed)

[{] (fronted)

[Q@] (r-colored)

[e] vowel ɛ open-mid front unrounded vowel them, egg Usually transcribed as /e/ by the AHD

[e@] (r-colored)

[eI] (diphthongized)

[I] vowel ɪ near-close near-front unrounded vowel kit, it, synthesis

[i:] (tense)

[I@] (r-colored)

[i:] vowel close front unrounded vowel beef, eat, harmony

[I] (lax)

[I@] (r-colored)

[{] vowel æ near-open front unrounded vowel trap, axe

[aI] (diphthongized) [aU] (diphthongized)

[O:] vowel

ɔː open-mid back rounded vowel

taught, ought, ball This vowel has a lot of variations depending on the dialect. In US dialects it varies between /ɑ/ for the cot–caught mergers and /ɒ~ɔ/ for the rest.

[Q] (lax)

[O@] (r-colored)

[Q] vowel ɒ open back rounded vowel lot, off

[O:]

[OI] (diphthongized)

[U] vowel ʊ near-close near-back rounded vowel put, look

[u:] (tense)

[U@] (r-colored)

[u:] vowel close back rounded vowel boot, view

[w] (semivowel)

[U] (lax)

[U@] (r-colored)

[@r] rhotic vowel

əɹ, ɚ or ɝ (US)

ɜː (UK)

urge, bird, marker r-colored schwa

[@] (non-rhotic)

[V]

[eI] diphthong eɪ̯ pay, age, date j-colored /e/ [e] (monothong)
[aI] diphthong aɪ̯ buy, eye, died j-colored /a/

[@]

[V]

[{]

[OI] diphthong ɔɪ̯ boy, oil, choice j-colored /ɔ/

[Q]

[O:]

[O@]

[@U] diphthong

oʊ̯ (UK)

oʊ̯~o (US)

oat, soak, show w-colored /o/. Usually transcribed as /əʊ̯/ or /oː/ [@]
[aU] diphthong aʊ̯ loud, out, cow w-colored /a/

[{]

[Q]

[I@] rhotic vowel

ɪə (UK)

i(ə)ɹ (US)

beer, ear r-colored /ɪ/

[I] (uppercase i)

[i:]

[e@] rhotic vowel

ɛə~ɛː (UK)

ɛɹ (US)

bear, air, aware r-colored /ɛ/ [e] (non-rhotic)
[U@] rhotic vowel

ʊə (UK)

ʊɹ (US)

poor, surely r-colored /ʊ/

[U] (non-rhotic)

[u:] (non-rhotic)

[O:] (non-rhotic)

[O@]

[O@] rhotic vowel

ɔː(ɹ) (UK)

ɔɹ~oɹ (US)

pour, sort r-colored /ɔ/

[O:] (non-rhotic)

[Q] (non-rhotic)

[Q@] rhotic vowel

ɑː(ɹ) (UK)

ɑɹ (US)

star, are, harmony r-colored /ɑ/

[@]

[V]

[w] consonant w labio-velar approximant way

[u:] (syllabant)

[U]

[j] consonant j palatal approximant yellow

[i:] (syllabant)

[I] (uppercase i)

[b] consonant b voiced bilabial plosive cab

[p] (voiceless)

[bh] (aspirated)

[bh] consonant aspirated voiced bilabial plosive big at the beginning of syllable, /b/ with aspiration

[ph] (voiceless)

[b] (deaspirated)

[d] consonant d voiced alveolar plosive bad

[t] (voiceless)

[dh] (aspirated)

[D] (lenited, lowered)

[dh] consonant aspirated voiced alveolar plosive dog at the beginning of syllable, /d/ with aspiration

[th] (voiceless)

[d] (deaspirated)

[D] (lenited, lowered)

[g] consonant g voiced velar plosive bag

[k] (voiceless)

[gh] (aspirated)

[N] (nasalized)

[gh] consonant aspirated voiced velar plosive god at the beginning of syllable, /g/ with aspiration

[kh] (voiceless)

[g] (deaspirated)

[dZ] consonant ʤ voiced postalveolar affricate jeans

[tS] (voiceless)

[Z] (spirantizated)

[d] (deaffricated)

[v] consonant v voiced labiodental fricative vote [f] (voiceless)
[D] consonant ð voiced dental fricative their

[T] (voiceless)

[d] (fortited)

[dh] (aspirated)

[v] (Th-fronting)

[z] consonant z voiced alveolar fricative resort

[s] (voiceless)

[Z] (palatalized)

[Z] consonant ʒ voiced postalveolar fricative Asia

[S] (voiceless)

[z] (depalatalized)

[dZ] (affricated)

[m] consonant m bilabial nasal mind

[n] (alveolarized)

[n] consonant n alveolar nasal night

[N] (velarized)

[m] (labialized)

[N] consonant ŋ velar nasal long [n] (develarized)
[r] consonant ɹ alveolar approximant red The /r/ is the symbol for the alveolar trill or rolling R for the IPA and the X-SAMPA, the symbol in this case seems be based on AHD

[R] (rolled)

[w] (gliding)

[l] consonant ɫ velarized alveolar lateral approximant feel Dark L, at the syllable coda position

[l0] (develarized)

[w] (L-vocalized)

[u] (L-vocalolized)

[U] (L-vocalized)

[l0] consonant l alveolar lateral approximant list Clear L, at the beginning of syllable

[l] (velarized)

[p] consonant p voiceless bilabial plosive dip

[b] (voiced)

[ph] (aspirated)

[ph] consonant aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive peace At the beginning of syllable, /p/ with aspiration

[bh] (voiced)

[p] (deaspirated)

[t] consonant t voiceless alveolar plosive sit

[d] (voiced)

[th] (aspirated)

[th] consonant aspirated voiceless alveolar plosive top At the beginning of syllable, /t/ with aspiration

[dh] (voiced)

[t] (deaspirated)

[k] consonant k voiceless velar plosive rock

[g] (voiced)


[kh] (aspirated)

[kh] consonant

aspirated voiceless velar plosive

kiss At the beginning of syllable, /k/ with aspiration

[gh] (voiced)

[k] (deaspirated)

[tS] consonant ʧ voiceless postalveolar affricate touch

[dZ] (voiced)

[S] (spirantizated)

[t] (deaffricated)

[f] consonant f voiceless labiodental fricative feel [v] (voiced)
[T] consonant θ voiceless dental fricative think

[D] (voiced)

[s] (Th-alveolarization)

[f] (Th-fronting)

[s] consonant s voiceless alveolar fricative sea

[z] (voiced) [S] (palatalized)

[S] consonant ʃ voiceless postalveolar fricative share

[Z] (voiced)

[tS] (affricated)

[s] (depalatalized)

[h] consonant h voiceless glottal fricative hat
[R] consonant r alveolar trill tierra (earth)

Rolling R. Generally used in non-English words

[r] (approximant)

TechniquesEdit

Phoneme ReplacementEdit

Due the big array of allophones and similar sounding phonemes available in the English Language, this allows a great flexibility for replacing the phonemes. This has a lot of applications, like altering the emphasis or stress of a word, correcting a strange pronunciation found in a voicebank,[11] alter the accent or general pronunciation of a particular VOCALOID,[12] etc.

This added to some auxiliar phonemes allows a great diversity of combinations and possibilities to experiment. However, the user must consider the results may vary between the different voicebanks due the individual differences like accent, pronunciation and samples' quality present in the voicebank. The most recommended is take these tips as a guide and experiment by yourself.

  • As said before, the user can replace the plosives for aspirated allophones without major issues due to sounding practically identical, just varying in the stress and air release. If a consonant sounds too strident or too weak, it's possible to replace it with the corresponding allophone.
  • Its possible swap a consonant by its respective (un)voiced counterparts.
    • This applies specially well for the end of the syllables, where the coda consonant is prone to assimilate the voicing of the neighbor phonemes.
    • This is harder for a onset consonant (beginning of a syllable), as the voicing can alter the meaning of the word; however still is possible if the user is careful with the consonant length. As it becomes shorter, it's harder distinguish the voicing of the consonants.
  • Due the L-vocalization process, the Dark L is prone to be warped into a close back vowel like [u:] or [U] or even being completely omitted.
  • In some cases is possible replace the dental plosives, [t] & [d] by their respective postalveolar affricates, [tS] & [dZ].
    • This often occurs when the dental plosive is palatalized by a nearby phoneme
    • Similar to the voicing swap, also is possible when the consonant length and stress somewhat neutralizes the differences between both phonemes.

Monothong ReplacementEdit

The English phonetic system has one biggest number of available vowels among the 5 languages currently available for Vocaloid (including monothongs, diphthongs and rhotic vowels).

For replace a vowel, you need to have an idea of which are the closest vowels in terms of sound quality. For this reason, it's a good idea to know which is

Ipa vowel chart for Vocaloid

Vowel chart for English, showing the rough position of the monothongs along with the respective IPA's symbols (black) and symbols for VOCALOID (gray). The relative position/pronunciation of the vowels , may vary according the regional accent/dialect.

  • Open Vowels:
    ←unrounded [{] [V] [@] [Q@] [Q] rounded→
    • Also known as low vowels, they are pronounced with the mouth open and with tongue in low position in relation from the roof of the mouth. They are characterized by their 'ah' to 'uh' sound quality and they positioned in the bottom of the IPA vowel chart.
  • Front unrounded vowels:
    ←open (lax) [{] [e] [e@] [eI] [I] [i:] close (tense)→
    • Also known as bright vowels, they're placed at the left side of the chart and are pronounced with the tongue positioned as far in front possible and with the lips unrounded. It sounds tends to vary from an lax 'eh'-like sound toward a tenser 'ee'-like or y-like sound, as the mouth progressively closes.
  • Back rounded vowels:
    ←open (lax) [Q@] [Q] [O:] [O@] [@U] [U] [u:] close (tense)→
    • Also known as dark vowels, they're placed at the right side of the chart and are pronounced with the tongue positioned as far in front possible and with the lips rounded. It sounds tends to vary from an lax 'oh'-like sound toward a tenser 'oo'-like or w-like sound, as the mouth progressively closes.
  • Central vowels:
    ←unstressed [@] [@r] [V] stressed→
    • Located at the center of the chart, these vowels tends to have an undefined 'uh'-like sound. When a vowel is reduced, it may tend to shift toward a central vowel.

Knowing this is relatively easy known how to replace a phoneme.

Example: The vowel [e] may be replaced by a [{] in case it's needed a more open pronunciation, or a [I], if it's needed a more closed one

In some instance, some diphthongs and rhotic vowels may be used as replacement of the monothongs, if it's pronunciation is closer to a pure vowel. In the case of the diphthong, this is possible for the mid vowels [eI] and [@U] if their diphthongization isn't too marked:

Example: The phoneme [eI] tends to sound like a tense [e] in some dialects.

In the case of the R-colored vowels, if the pronunciation is non rhotic, these ones

Example: The phoneme [Q@] in non-rhotic pronunciation is /ɑ:/, which allows use it as replacement of other open vowels like [V], [Q] and [@].

Diphone Replacement/SplittingEdit

[13] [14]

Original Diphone Type IPA's notation Replacement for First Phoneme Replacement for Second Phoneme
[aI] Diphthong aɪ̯ [V], [{] or [Q] [e], [I], [i:] or [j]
[eI] Diphthong eɪ̯ [e] [I], [i:] or [j]
[OI] Diphthong ɔɪ̯ [Q] or [O:] [I], [i:] or [j]
[aU] Diphthong aʊ̯ [V], [{] or [Q] [O:], [U], [u:] or [w]
[@U] Diphthong oʊ̯ [Q] or [O:] [O:], [U], [u:] or [w]
[@r] Rhotic Vowel əɹ or ɚ

[@]

[r]
[Q@] Rhotic Vowel

ɑː(ɹ) (UK)


ɑɹ (US)

[V], [{] or [Q]

[@]


[@r] or [r]

[e@] Rhotic Vowel

ɜː (UK)


ɝ (US)

[e]


[@]


[@r] or [r]

[I@] Rhotic Vowel

ɪə (UK)


i(ə)ɹ (US)

[I] or [i:]

[@]


[@r] or [r]

[O@] Rhotic Vowel

ɔː(ɹ) (UK)


ɔɹ~oɹ (US)

[Q] or [O:]

[@]


[@r] or [r]

[U@] Rhotic Vowel

ʊə (UK)


ʊɹ (US)

[U] or [u:]

[@]


[@r] or [r]

Error en la cita: Código de apertura <ref> sin su código de cierre </ref>


Error en la cita: Existen etiquetas <ref>, pero no se encontró una etiqueta <references />

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