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Language DifferencesEdit

It should be noted that while Korean technically contains the majority of Japanese phonemes, that isn't necessarily true vice-versa. While the two languages are similar phonetically, differences in encoding make it difficult to transcribe between the two languages. Allophones present in Japanese are encoded as separate consonants, while in Korean they are encoded under one single consonant. For example, か [k a] and きゃ [k' a] in Japanese are coded using two separate consonant sounds yet 까 [g' a] and 꺄 [g' ja] in Korean are phonetically the same, but are coded differently and use the same consonant.

Korean can be used to recreate 100% of the Japanese language while Japanese can only recreate a portion of the Korean language. This is due to the presence of 4 aspirated consonants, multiple ending consonants, and 2 individual vowels in Korean that aren't present in Japanese. It should also be noted that proper Korean contains labialized consonants that also aren't present in standard Japanese.

Japanese to KoreanEdit

TechniquesEdit

Conversion ListEdit

Korean Sample in Hangul\Revised RomanizationEdit
Korean Symbol IPA for Korean Symbol Equivalent / Quasiequivalent Japanese Symbol IPA for Japanese Symbol Notes
ㅏ (a) [a] [ɐ]

[a]

[a]

ㅑ (ya) [ja] [jɐ]

[j a]

[ja]

ㅓ (eo) [7] [ɤ]

[o]

[o]

ㅕ (yeo) [j7] [jɤ]

[j o]

[jo]
ㅐ (ae) ㅔ (e) [e] [e] [e] [e]
ㅒ (yae) ㅖ (ye) [je] [je] [j e] [je]
ㅗ (o) [o] [o]

[o]

[o]

ㅘ (wa) [oa] [wɐ]

[w a]

[wa]

ㅛ (yo) [jo] [jo]

[j o]

[jo]

ㅜ (u) [u] [u] [M] [ɯ]
ㅝ (weo) [u7] [wɤ]

[w o]

[wo]

ㅙ (wae) ㅚ (oe) ㅞ (we) [ue] [we] [w e] [we]
ㅟ (wi) [ui] [wi] [w i] [wi]
ㅠ (yu) [ju] [ju] [j M] [jɯ]
ㅡ (eu) [M] [ɯ] [M] [ɯ]
ㅢ (eui) [Mi] [ɰi] [M i] [ɯi]
l (i) [i] [i] [i] [i]
ㄱ (g) [g] [g]

[g]

[g]

ㄲ (gg) [g'] [k] [k] [k]
ㄴ (n) [n] [n] [n] [n]
ㄷ (d) [d] [d]

[d]

[d]

ㄸ (dd) [d'] [t] [t] [t]
ㄹ (r) [r]

[ɾ]

[4]

[ɾ]

ㄹ (l) [l] [ɭ] [4] [ɾ]
ㅁ (m) [m] [m] [m] [m]
ㅂ (b) [b] [b]

[b]

[b]

ㅃ (bb) [b'] [p] [p] [p]
ㅅ (s) [s] [s] [s] [s]
ㅅ (s) [sh] [ɕ] [S] [ɕ]
ㅆ (ss) [s'] [s:] [s] [s]
ㅆ (ss) [sh'] [ɕ:] [S] [ɕ]
ㅈ (j) [c]

[dʑ]

[dz]

[dZ]

[dz]

[dʑ]

[dz]

ㅉ (jj) [c']

[tɕ]

[ts]

[tS]

[t s]

[tɕ]

[ts]

ㅊ (ch) [ch]

[tɕʰ]

[tsʰ]

[tS]

[ts]

[tɕ]

[ts]

ㅋ (k) [k] [kʰ] [k] [k]
ㅌ (t) [t] [tʰ] [t] [t]
ㅍ (p) [p] [pʰ] [p] [p]
ㅎ (h) [h]

[h] or [ɦ]

[ç]

[ɸ]

[x]

[h]

[C]

[p\]

[h]

[h] or [ɦ]

[ç]

[ɸ]

[h] or [ɦ]

ㄱㄲㅋ (k) [gp] [k̚] [k] [k]
ㄴ (n) [np] [n] [n] [n]
ㄷㅅㅆㅈㅊㅌ (t) [dp] [t̚] [t] [t]
ㄹ(l) [rp] [ɭ]

[4]

[ɾ]

ㅁ (m) [mp] [m] [m] [m]
ㅂㅍ (p) [bp] [p̚] [p] [p]
ㅇ (ng) [Np] [ŋ] [N] [ŋ]

Korean to JapaneseEdit

TechniquesEdit

Conversion ListEdit

Japanese Sample in Hepburn Romaji + notes Japanese Symbol IPA for Japanese Symbol Equivalent Korean Symbol IPA for Korean Symbol Notes
ai a ä [a]

ɐ

ima i

i

[i]

i

uta M ɯᵝ or u͍

[M]

[u]

ɯ

u

egao e e̞ or ɛ̝ [e] e̞ or ɛ̝
omoi o o̜ or ɔ̜

[o]

o

kokoro k k

[g']

k
kibou (followed by /i/) k'

[g'] (before i)

genki (note: at the beginning of word or sometimes after んn) g g

[g]

g

giri (note: followed by /i/. at the beginning of word or sometimes after んn) g'

[g] (before i)

hanpen, gagaku (note: similar to [m] when followed by occlusive, [ŋ] as nasalized g) N

m

ŋ

[m]

[N]

m

ŋ

kagi (note: palatalized nasalized g') N' ŋʲ

[N] (before i)

ŋʲ
sadame s s

[s]

s
shiawase (palatalized /s/) S ɕ or ʃʲ [sh] ɕ or ʃʲ
kizu (note: generally intervowel, however some Japanese use dz or dZ instead) z z [c] dz or ʥ
iji (note: followed by /i/. often between vowels, however some Japanese use dz or dZ instead) Z ʑ or ʒʲ [c] (before i) dz or ʥ
zuboshi, kazu (note: often [ʣ] at the beginning of word or after んn, [z] in other cases) dz

ʣ

[c] dz or ʥ
jibun, kaji (note: followed by /i/. often [ʤ] at the beginning of word or after んn, [ʒ] in other cases) dZ ʥ or ʤʲ [c] (before i) dz or ʥ
taido t

t

[d']

t

baraetii (note: palatalized /t/, used for non-Japanese words) t' tʲ or ti

[d'] (before i)

t

tsuki ts ʦ or t͡s

[c']

ʦ or ʨ
inochi (palatalized /t/) tS ʨ or ʧʲ [c'] (before i) ʦ or ʨ
daichi, kaden (note: [d] at the beginning of word or after んn, [ð] in other cases) d

d

ð

[d]

d

ð

merodii (note: palatalized /d/, used for non-Japanese words) d'

[d] (before i)

namida, kanpa (note: [n] when followed by fricative/flap consonant or vowel/semi-vowel, similar to [m] when followed by occlusive) n

n

m

[n]

[m]

n

m

nioi (note: followed by /i/) J nʲ or ɲ

[n] (before i)

nʲ or ɲ

hana h h [h] (at the beginning of a sequence) h
h\ ɦ [h] (between vowels) ɦ
hinagiku (note: palatalized /h/) C ç

[h] (before i)

ç
fushigi p\ ɸ

[h] (before u)

[h] (before M)

ɸ

x

boku b

b or β

[b]

b or β

bijin (note: followed by /i/) b'

bʲ or βʲ

[b] (before i)

bʲ or βʲ

tanpo p p

[b']

p

henpi (note: followed by /i/) p'

[b'] (before i)

manako m m [m] m
imi (note: followed by /i/) m'

[m] (before i)

yume j j [j] j
renge, sora (note: often [ɺ], [ɭ] or [ɖ] at the beginning of word or after んn, [ɾ] or [ɽ] in other cases) 4 [ɺ], [ɭ], [ɖ], [ɾ] or [ɽ]

[r]

[l]

[ɖ], [ɾ] or [ɽ]

[ɭ], or [ɺ]

rikutsu, teiri (note: followed by /i/, often palatalized when it is not at the beginning of word or after んn) 4' [ɾʲ] or [ɖ]

[r] (before i)

[ɾʲ] or [ɖ]
watashi (note: compressed /w/) w ɰ͡β̞, w͍ or wᵝ

[w]

w

kantan (note: end of word) N\ ɴ

[N]

ŋ

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