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Using the Parameters

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VOCALOID1's Parameters Edit

Brightness Edit

Brightness changes the voice by boosting or cutting the voice's high-frequency content. The higher the value, the brighter the sound. Lowering the value creates a more mellow voice.

Clearness Edit

Similar to Brightness, Clearness is designed to 'clear' the voice, making it sharper. A higher value sharpens the voice, lowering it gives a more muted sound.

Gender Factor Edit

Shifts the overall formant structure of the voice over a large range. Raising the Gender Factor will produce a thicker masculine tone while lowering it will give a more feminine, or even "chipmunk-like", sound to the voice.

Harmonics Edit

The Harmonics parameter controls the level of harmonic content in the voice, thus affecting the phonation. Vowels and other sonorants are always voiced, so they're the most affected by this parameter.

This is one of the parameters that's no longer available in later versions of the software. Although it was removed from V3 onwards, it's possible achieve devoicing of the sonorants with the addition of a '_0' suffix to the intended phoneme.

Noise Edit

Opposite to Harmonics, the Noise parameter controls the level of the unvoiced content in the voice. For this reason mostly affects to consonants, especially the unvoiced ones. This also affects the "breathiness" of the voice. This is one of the parameters that's no longer available in later versions of the software.

Note Velocity Edit

Note Velocity determines the individual volume of each note, it is automatically created when a note is drawn. Unlike any other parameter used in V1, the pencil tool cannot be used with it, and instead uses individual bars for modify it's value.

It's behavior is closer to the Velocity measurement of the MIDI files. This eventually was modified in later versions of the software.

Resonances Edit

The Resonances were a group of parameters that allowed users to edit the formants of the singing samples individually. Each parameter controlled a specific formant, changing the pronunciation of vowels and the timbre of the singing voice. This is one of the parameters that is no longer available in later versions of the software.

Singer Edit

The Singer Parameter is used to change voices in the control track. There can be multiple singers per track. A thing to note is when importing VSQs into V1, the Singer Icon will appear twice instead of once.

Pitch Bend Edit

The Pitch Bend Parameter goes from -8192 to 8191 with 0 as its default. It can allow the voice to go up to ±2 octaves from the original note. However it needs to be used with the Pitch Bend Sensitivity to unlock its full range.

Pitch Bend Sensitivity Edit

Pitch Bend Sensitivity is used to decrease or increase the range of the Pitch Bend Parameter. The default at 12 allows for a pitch variation of ±1 octave, and at 24 it allows for a pitch variation of ±2 octaves.

Portamento Timing Edit

Portamento Timing is used to change the timing of the notes. However, it should be mentioned that Portamento is generally affected more by the singing style, rather than the Portamento Timing Parameter itself after the 1.1 update. The higher the value is, the later the timing is; the lower the value the sooner the note is sung.

Parameters from VOCALOID2 and onwardsEdit

From the 2nd version of the software, there have been a series of parameters that have become common in all the succeeding versions of YAMAHA's singing software. A selection of them were available in V1, though some possess new functions or work in a different way. Despite the changes between each version, the basic functionality of these parameters hasn't suffered drastic modification since then.

VEL (Velocity)Edit

Velocity determines how quickly the singers pronounces the note/word, thus influencing consonant trailing and consonant duration. Higher velocities result in shorter consonants and subjectively affects the attack of the lyric[1][2]. This parameters affects particularly the fricatives and affricates, like the "s" and "f" sounds. Unlike the other parameters, its value is adjusted through a series of individual bars per note instead of a continuous curve; a trait carried from V1.

In VOCALOID2, large adjustments produced insignificant changes, so usually people didn't adjust this value very much. However in VOCALOID3, this parameter indeed affects significantly the consonant length, making critical adjust it for achieve a correct pronunciation, emphasis or attack.

As it affects the consonant length, it can move the beginning of a note closer to, and sometimes even so that it overlaps, the preceding note. In the case of plosives this can sometimes result in an almost silent preparatory interval prior to sounding of the actual consonant.

As  said before, the Velocity parameters work differently across VOCALOID and VOCALOID2 (in V1, it manipulated the volume of the note), so it's important take note of this if you ever attempt to export a VSQ file into a Vocaloid MIDI file.

DYN (Dynamics)Edit

Adjusts the Dynamics, basically the volume of a note. Allows you to create effects like crescendo or diminuendo, and when it's used effectively adds expressiveness. Also allows you to do manually the attacks and accents in the song. The default "curve" is a straight line at the medium dynamic value.

To get a more realistic voice, its advisable that you vary this per note, or accordingly the expression or intensity the singer delivers in the song.

DYN are not advisable to be too high across the song. While they raise the volume, also it raises the loudness and makes more notorious the sound artifact and noise found in the voicebank's samples. Besides, on lower grade computers it will increase the "crackling" effect if one adjusts Vocaloids mixer. Particularly true if one has more than one multiple vocalist in several tracks.

BRE (Breathiness)Edit

Breathiness controls the weight of the voice’s breathing. Higher values add more breath to the voice. In earlier versions of the software this was one of the parameters the users preferred keep at minimal, due the inherent "metallic" sound of the breaths, and because also it may affect the speech clarity.

It's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' to create your own voice configurations for singers.

BRI (Brightness)Edit

Brightness is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, boosting or cutting the voice’s high-frequency content. Higher values produce a brighter, or more "present" sound, while lower values produce a more mellow effect. Lower values can effectively simulate gently delivered or even whispered phrases. Also affects the overall volume, along a lower brightness there's a lower volume and vice-versa

It's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' to create your own voice configurations or singers.

CLE (Clearness)Edit

Clearness is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, sharpening the voice. Higher values produce a sharper, clearer sound while lower values produce a more muted sound. It is the VOCALOID software's equivalent of treble.[citation needed]

It affects consonant phonemes' pronunciation, those ones becomes harsher and more notorious. Also the "roboticness", synthesizer's artifacts and samples' noise are increased if you raise this parameter too much. Also affects the overall volume, along a lower clearness there's a lower volume and vice-versa.

It's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' to create your own voice configurations or singers.

OPE (Opening)Edit

The Opening parameter reproduce the variation of pronunciation through adjustments of the opening of the mouth. Higher opening values can produce a clear, open tone, while reducing the opening value can produce a less distinct tone or pronunciation. It also affects the overall pronunciation, the open vowels are the most affected by this parameter. Its default value in the editor, it's set at max.

In VOCALOID2, it's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' for create your own voice configurations or singers. This is no longer available in the 'Singer Editor' for VOCALOID3, as the parameter was modified to work in a similar fashion to the VEL (through individual control bars for each note, instead an editable curve, as it happens with the other parameters)

GEN (Gender Factor)Edit

Gender Factor is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, modifying the overall formant structure of the voice, effectively altering its "masculinity" or "femininity", without break the original foundation of the voice.

Higher values produces a thicker masculine tone while lowering it will give a more feminine or even a "chipmunk-like" sound tone to the voice.

It's noteworthy to consider as this parameter modifies the formants, it can alter until certain degree the pronunciation of the vowels and other phoneme. This may be useful, considering the removal of the Resonances parameter-

It's one of the parameters that you can edit through the 'Singer Editor' to create your own voice configurations or singers.

POR (Portamento Timing)Edit

Portamento Timing is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software, however it function is slight. This parameter adjusts starting position of the Portamento (in other words, the pitch sliding between two notes).

POR should be used in moderation as it could unsynchronize the pitch variation if used haphazardly, creating the impression of "drunken singing",especially when there are short notes with drastic changes of pitch.

However, if it's used effectively, gives a more human feel as allows you to effectively control the legato and pitch transition.

In VOCALOID4, this parameter is easier to use with the aid of the 'Pitch Rendering' feature.

PIT (Pitch Bend)Edit

PIT - PBS Example

With a PBS = 3, the three notes has approximately the same Pitch

The Pitch Bend is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, allowing adjust the Pitch through an editable curve, allowing you create hand-drawn pitch bends. How much it affects the pitch, is determined by the PBS.[3]

Useful for the correction of certain pitch nuances and for add more expressiveness. Sometimes is preferable use this parameter instead of POR to create a specific kind of pitch bend.

The PIT also affects slightly the brightness and the clearness. Along a higher PIT, there are higher brightness and clearness of the affected note, and vice-versa.


In VOCALOID4, this parameter acquires new uses and a better control with the addition of the 'Pitch Rendering', which allows you to see graphically the changes or adjustments of pitch, and the 'Convert Vibrato to Pitch Bend' options, which respectively converts the vibratos and legatos/portamento normally edited through the 'Note Expression Property' window into equivalent curves of the PIT parameter.

PBS (Pitch Bend Sensitivity)Edit

The Pitch Bend Sensitivity is one of the parameters retained from the first version of the software. It keeps its functionality intact, determining the semitones range of PIT paramater.

For example, for a D3 note if the PBS is set on 3 and the PIT is set at its highest value, the note will sound like a F3 note (3 semitones higher than the original note pitch).

Its maximum value is 24 semitones, the equivalent to 2 octaves.

VOCALOID4's ParametersEdit

GWL (Growl)Edit

This parameter adds a hard tremolo or guttural effect to the voice, giving it a more aggressive or forced intonation, adding expression to the tone of the vocal.[4] It uses additional recorded samples to work, for this reason VOCALOID2 and VOCALOID3 cannot use the feature simply because they do not contain the additional samples needed for the feature.[5] Importing the VOCALOID3 version of Yuzuki Yukari into VOCALOID alongside the Yuzuki Yukari V4 will open up the use of XSY for use with any of the VOCALOID4 packages vocals, but it will not be able to use GWL, despite the 3 voicebanks within the VOCALOID4 package having access to it.

This allows for certain Vocaloids to have a voice needed for genres such as Rock, Blues or Soul , expanding their capabilities beyond their normal genres.[6] The feature is varied in its results with some Vocaloids being more impacted then others.

"VOCALOID 4 新機能 「グロウル」 - Growl - "
  YouTube  Official Demonstration of the Growl parameter

XSY (Cross-Synthesis)Edit

Cross Synthesis (クロス-シーサセス) is a parameter that allows a voicebank to be able to blend into another voicebank, in a gradually and progressive way. For example, a "natural" voicebank being able to blend into sound like a "power" voicebank. It is only available with the full version of the software and is not accessible with the "lite" version of the software.

To make use of this, the users must access the Cross-Synthesis Web browser through the Singer Editor, and can assign a Primary Voice and a Secondary Voice for be used in the Cross-Synthesis. This feature works with VOCALOID3 voicebanks imported into the VOCALOID4 engine however this is limited to a few voicebanks.[7]

A chart of the voicebank packages that supports this feature is available in Yamaha's official website.'

Cross-Synthesis will morph the Primary Voice using the Secondary Voice as an analytical data guide for adaption of the first. The cross-synthesis is not simply switching between two voices as the users draws a parameter curve, but is instead increasing the ratio of the Secondary Voice being combined with the Primary Voice, being more complex than a simple fade out. As the Primary Voice is used as "template" for the morphing, it means the vocal combination used in the Cross-Synthesis is not mutually exclusive or interchangeably, thus meaning the rendering and behavior will be slightly different depending which voicebank is used as primary or secondary voice.

  • Example: A Power-Normal setting will not be equal to Normal-Power.

The way the XSY works is very similar in concept to how the original VOCALOID engine used recorded analytic data to adapt the Vocaloid engine noise to sound like the vocalist behind the data.

Users should be aware it can offer unpredictable or unexpected results when used, particularly when the two vocals used for the feature have great differences between them or when the involved vocals where created without consider this option, as it happened with many of the VOCALOID3's voicebanks when imported into VOCALOID4.

  • Example: In the Megpoid V4 package, wherein while the respective pairs of vocals (Native and NativeFat for example) offer a moderate XSY result, XSY between the other 8 vocals offers more unpredictble result (Power and Sweet for example). Comparing also to the V3 Megpoid vocal, the V3 Megpoid vocals use of XSY is not so effect as the voices were never intended to be set up for use with the function as it was not part of VOCALOID3's functions and thus they produce much more LQ overall results.

When used effectively, XSY expands the capabilities of the Vocaloid package in use, increasing its overall abilities beyond what any single vocal within the package offers. However as noted by the Megpoid V4 package, the potential created by XSY is large. By mixing vocals with more extreme results, the combination of the two vocals creates a effect that mimicks having a entirely different Voicebank. Essentially, a Vocaloid with just two vocals can achieve a "third voicebank" and "fourth voicebank" via the XSY function.[8]

The resulting samples may also end up with  an altered optimum range, either increased or decreased depending on the combination. The resulting vocal may thus end up with a loss of quality compared to the original two vocals that were used for it or produce undesirable results. It is recommended that Users take time to experiment with results to achieve the best effect. Either way, for Vocaloids with access to even just 1 more additional vocal expansion library and XSY will see their overall tone capabilities doubled. This makes them a much more attractive package then Vocaloids with just a single vocal offered within their package.

The number of potential variations creates;

  • 2 voicebanks; produces 2 variations with XSY, 4 variations altogether including the original vocals
  • 3 voicebanks; produces 6 variations with XSY, 9 variations including the original vocals
  • 4 voicebanks; produces 12 variations with XSY, 16 variations including the original vocals
  • 5 voicebanks; produces 20 variations with XSY, 25 variations including the original vocals
  • 6 voicebanks; produces 30 variations with XSY, 36 variations including the original vocals
  • 7 voicebanks; produces 42 variations with XSY, 49 variations including the original vocals
  • 8 voicebanks; produces 56 variations with XSY, 64 variations including the original vocals
  • 9 voicebanks; produces 72 variations with XSY, 81 variations including the original vocals
  • 10 voicebanks; produces 90 variations with XSY, 100 variations including the original vocals

As with the "GWL" function, this feature may prove very limiting to vocals that are too similar. A common complaint with Megurine Luka V4X English vocals "Straight" and "Soft" is how little use XSY is for the two vocals, as it barely impact either vocal.

In addition, XSY between post VOCALOID3 engine versions can be possible as seen with the original Yuzuki Yukari voicebank and the later Yuzuki Yukari V4 package. Additional features, such as GWL will not be opened up for use with the VOCALOID3 versions despite this. However, in the case of most examples within Vocaloid, due to the differences between the versions varying greatly XSY has not been opened between VOCALOID3 and VOCALOID4 versions. XSY's differences are worked out by use of mathematical equations to work out the differences between the primary and secondary vocals. The calculations don't work particularly well when the voicebanks have libraries built entirely different to each other as it was not designed to handle this and it is almost impossible to get good quality results. This is why VOCALOID3 and VOCALOID4 XSY is not fesiable, nor XSY between languages and multiple vocaloids. This is also why feature such as E.V.E.C. may cause issues with XSY.

  • "VOCALOID 4 新機能 「クロスシンセシス」 - Cross Synthesis - "
      YouTube  Official Demonstration of the Cross Synthesis parameter

See also Controversy Concerns for issues related to this featured.

Using the parameters Edit

Controlling the intonation Edit

Basic Parameters Edit

Before VOCALOID4, the only way to modify the intonation of a voice was using the parameters BRI, CLE, BRE, OPE and GEN. A combination of these are allowed to modulate the voice in different ways, and the 'Singer Editor' allowed to save some of the configurations


However it wasn't possible increase dramatically the overall power of a voice, being easier module and tinge the voice to make it softer than the other way. This specially important when working voicebanks that are inherently soft.

Switching and combining voicebanks Edit

Part of the issue adressed previously was solved with the addition of the packs that included multiple voicebanks for a same voice.


Additional tools Edit

Adjusting the pronunciationEdit

Aside of the intonation and expressiveness, the parameters affects the pronunciation


The most important parameters needed for control correctly the pronunciation are VEL, OPE and GEN.

As stated previously, the Velocity (VEL) controls the consonants' length and trailing at the beginning of the syllables/notes. It's for this reason is required adjust it carefully for avoid weird pronunciation, forced emphasis or incorrect stress.

Adjusting the Opening (OPE) parameter, simulates the change of pronunciation on how wide the performer opens their voice while singing. Set at max value by default, lowering this parameters produces a more ambiguous and less distinguishable pronunciation. In general terms, lowering the OPE makes the consonants less marked and affects in minor degree raises the vowel's height, making them sound tenser. The first effect is useful for diminish the stress, while the second is useful for modify the "vowel color".

Finally, as the Gender Factor (GEN) modifies the formant structure for alter the voice's timbre, it can be used for modify the pronunciation of the phonemes, specially if used in conjunction with the OPE parameter. In general, it's possible modify the pronunciation without modify significantly the timbre within a value range below ±30 the current one.

Expressive ElementsEdit

In general terms, the most critical parameters for achieve a convincing degree of expressiveness are the DYN and the PIT/PBS, the first one being required for control the overall volumen, emphasis and modulate or imitate some expressive techniques (crescendo, dynamic accent), while the second is required to control the tonality and for imitate some of the voice's inflections. The is more evident with the new V4's features: 'Convert Vibrato to Pitch Bend' and 'Convert Expression to Pitch Bend' options, which converts the vibrato and legatos/portamento normally edited through the Note Expression Property window into equivalent curves of the PIT parameter, and with some Job Plug-ins like SineVibrato (which produces vibratos through variation of the DYN and PIT parameters)or Vocalistener (which mimics the variations of singer's timbre and expression, through complex DYN, PIT/PBS curves).

BRI can be useful in more ways than one. If you don't start off at the maximum limit, start lower down instead, on long drawn out notes, you can raise the brightness. This can add power to a long out note. Or in the opposite direction, this can be used to further mimic a singer by gently allowing notes to trail off quietly. . You can also use it for the climax of a song, making the notes louder for impact, specially if is combined with other parameters like the DYN, CLE or GWL.


The BRE can be a tricky parameter to use. If used effectively allows a more natural feeling, complementing or imitating the breaths and other similar expressive elementes in the singing or even help to produce whisper-like effect when combined with parameters like DYN and BRI. However, if is abused or tuned incorrecly it may cause issues with the clarity, pronunciation, increase some sound artifacts or undesired noises.

With VOCALOID4, the GWL parameter added a new tool to be combined with these pre-existing parameters.

Additional tools Edit

References Edit

  1. http://piapro.jp/t/stAt
  2. link
  3. MATT TRIES TO EXPLAIN PIT AND PBS IN VOCALOID
  4. VOCALOID4 New Features #1 - Growl
  5. link
  6. link
  7. tweet
  8. link

NotesEdit

  • Not all Vocaloid users will be working to the same goals. With a great deal of work, you can also use a few of these techniques to hide the digital roboticness the Vocaloid engine produces as it goes from note to note. Remember, the more dramatic the change from one note to another in the octaves (going from #C1 to #C4 for instance) will produce high levels of roboticness and not all of these techniques will be able to remove it. You can also use the parameters of the software to make the software more robotic, if that is your goal also.
  • Beside the use of the parameters, after the importing the WAV file, you can work the voice in some DAWs or sound editors. Some filters can add a electronic effects if you're attempting increase the robotic feeling, or for the otherwise, you can remove some of the synthesizer's artifacts for give it a more natural and human feeling.

See alsoEdit

Please note we are waiting for more information on some languages

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